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My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Book by David Michalets

Einstein's Mistakes

With Forces and Light

Einstein's mistakes began in his 2 papers of 1905, with the 1st on the photoelectric effect, and the 2nd on the Theory of Special Relativity.

Both papers were widely applauded, with the 1st getting the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.

This book explains my disagreement with both papers.

I also describe the detrimental impact that the acceptance of these papers had on physics.

Physics is the science for the properties of matter and energy.

I call Einstein's conclusions mistakes because, by their acceptance, physics no longer understands gravity,  the nature of  light,  and the instantaneous effect of the fundamental forces of gravity, electric, and magnetic.

The 1st paper was a mistake by trying to change our understanding of electromagnetic radiation, or light, which was defined by James Clerk Maxwell as the propagation of synchronized electric and magnetic fields

Einstein proposed that light moves as packets of energy.  Gilbert N. Lewis named Einstein's packet of energy  a photon.
The conclusion is  light has a particle nature

This mistake affected particle physics

The 2nd paper tried to change our understanding of the fundamental forces:

a) for gravity, Einstein proposed that only the gravitational field, not the force, is important for motion.  This neglects the fact that the force of gravity has 2 participants, so Einstein ignored the effect of the force on the other mass

b) Einstein defined  a path curvature for only a gravitational field, so this ignores electromagnetism when the special observer has an electrical charge.

c) Einstein  proposed the fundamental forces act at the velocity of light and are not instantaneous, as defined by Newton and Maxwell

This mistake with forces affected particle physics.

This mistake of velocity resulted in another mistake, a non-existent gravitational wave.

Einstein also proposed gravity can bend the path of light. It cannot.

This mistake resulted in another mistake, a non-existent gravitational lens.

It is also involved in yet another mistake with gravity and light, the impossible black hole, where matter disappears, because we cannot see any light from the mass within a point in space-time..

However, though invisible within a point,  its force of gravity remains.

A black hole is needed in cosmology as the wrong explanation for an X-ray source having a small size.

Cosmology has yet to integrate plasma physics, despite Hannes Alfven getting the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his important work on plasma physics.

Cosmology fails to recognize a source of synchrotron radiation.

A black hole with a hot accretion disk is the wrong explanation for a source of  X-rays.

Isaac Newton had defined the relationship between a force, matter, and an acceleration of matter.

Newton defined gravity as an instantaneous force between 2 masses, but diminishing by the inverse-square of their mutual distance .

James Clerk Maxwell defined an instantaneous electric force between 2 charges, but diminishing by inverse- square of their mutual distance .

There is an important fundamental difference between the assumptions of Newton or Maxwell (or Alfven) and those of Einstein:

whether the effect of a force can be instantaneous, or is restricted to the velocity of light.

Of the 4 scientists, only Einstein claimed that both  matter in motion and the fundamental forces were restricted to the velocity of light.

Neither has that observed restriction. Therefore, Einstein made a mistake.

That statement and the 2 papers justify  my  book's title.

The complete justification covers many topics.

Einstein's Mistakes is a book presented as a series of web pages, so I call it a web-book.

Anyone having Internet access can read this web-book, by starting with its link.

In this format, the reader's platform and browser enable changes to a presentation. That flexibility is impossible in a book.

The  main advantages of a web-book are easy zooming by the reader, integrated links to on-line references, and it's free.

The Table of Contents enables navigating among the sections.  Click on the link to view that section.

Each section ends with a link to this TOC.

Table of Contents

Introduction (below)

1 Physics by Newton

2 Electromagnetism

3 Light by Gardi

4 Photoelectric effect

5 Theory of Relativity

6 Physics by Space-time

7 Eddington Experiment

8 Black Hole

9 Cosmology

10 Particle Physics

11 My Other Publications

12 Conclusion


The top of this first page already provided an overview of this web-book.

Here is a summary of the respective sections, and how each explains one of Einstein's mistakes and how it can be fixed.

Some sections (1, 2, 3) are needed to describe the background for the original behavior as understood in  physics, before Einstein.

Subsequent sections describe Einstein's mistakes and how they ruined that earlier, valid understanding in physics.

1 Physics by Newton

Newton defined the foundation of physics, with the relationship of a force to a mass results in acceleration.
He also set the important context of absolute space and absolute time, where both are independent of all observers.

Several behaviors are described where only the force of gravity is the correct mechanism to explain it, not space-time. One example is ocean tides.

2 Electromagnetism

This section briefly describes electromagnetism and light. Different characteristics of light and its spectrum are also described.

3 Light by Gardi

Lori Gardi explained:

a) her discovery of a mistake in the units of Planck's constant,

b) how energy is carried in a wavelength of light; there is no photon,

c) with no change to Maxwell's work.

4 Photoelectric effect

Einstein misunderstood the resuls of Max Planck's experiments with the photoelectric effect, and made the mistake of assigning the quantized behavior in the atom to the light being absorbed by the atom. There is no photon.

5 Theory of Relativity

This section describes the transitions our perception of space and time, from Newton, to Minkowski,  to Einstein.

6 Physics by Space-time

This section covers more than the phrase "Spacetime tells matter how to move; matter tells spacetime how to curve."

7 Eddington Experiment

This section explains the experiment by Eddington in 1919 to verify Einstein's prediction, the results from Eddington, and also Dr. Dowdye's verification of the only conditions when the light of a star can be predicted to bend by refraction, when passing near the Sun.

8 Black Hole

This section explains the origin of a black hole in relativity,  and why the entity is needed by cosmology.

9 Cosmology

Cosmology was affected by Einstein's mistakes in more ways than the Eddington Experiment,  and the black hole, including a gravitational lens and a gravitational wave..

10 Particle Physics

Einstein's 2 mistakes, of 1) a photon and 2) forces having a velocity limit, required particles in the Standard Model.

11 My Other Publications

I  briefly describe my other publications and their conclusions. There are 10 paperback books, 6 pdf files, and 2 web-books.

12 Conclusion

Einstein's 2 papers in 1905 caused mistakes in several sciences, from cosmology, particle physics, to physics.
These were explained in the other sections, and are summarized here.

Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.

last change 01/25/2022