Cosmology Views

Updating Astronomical Data

The book Observing Our Universe had recommendations for public astronomical data.
The book also proposed a new galaxy distance equation based on the IGM effect observed by the 1920's for galaxies beyond our Local Group.

This page presents a preliminary approach for those recommendations.

The current Hubble's Constant as currently defined and used is not a constant.

That mistake resulted in a crisis because it had different values when using different measurement methods.

There is no justification for assuming the IGM is constant or uniform throughout the universe.

These 2 new terms are used here, until another pair is defined:

IMF-N = Intergalactic Medium factor numerator (z value, as a signed real number)

IMF-D = Intergalactic Medium factor denominator (in Mpc, as a positive real number)

Every galaxy requires the following public data:

a) constellation
b) celestial coordinates (RA and Dec.)

c) measured magnitude

d) calculated absolute magnitude

e) galaxy classification(s)

f) diameter, in Mpc

g) list of supernovae
h) estimated star count

i) galaxy cluster name

j)  whether red shift was measured; either yes or no,

k) its measured hydrogen absorption line red shift as a z value, as a signed real number,
l) other element which was used; none if  hydrogen used

m) Cepheid type present; value = none when none present

n) Cepheid peak magnitude, as signed real number

o) Cepheid period, in days as positive real number

p) Distance calculated by Cepheid, in Mpc as positive real number

q) IMF-N here

r) IMF-D here

s) Distance calculated by IGM factor, in Mpc

t) spectrogram data

This can include much information including when, where, with what, and maybe by whom.

The elements for any absorption lines should be noted for academic purposes.

t)  galaxy proper velocity; no = never measured; or yes (or either 0 or 1; false or true)

If a galaxy proper velocity were ever measured, it must consist of these values:

1) overall velocity (in km/s)

2) proper velocity in X (in km/s)

3) proper velocity in Y (in km/s)

4) proper velocity in Z (in km/s)
Note: no velocity is measured relative to Earth.

Note: entries a, b, c, d, i, t apply to quasars also, where t requires many details..

Many more entries are possible for galaxies.

New Galaxy Distance Equation

Now the effect of the Intergalactic Medium is used for an approximate distance calculation, when the rules are followed consistently.

This is the equation  having 3 input values from the galaxy (entries k, p, q):

D = z / ( IMF-N / IMF-D )

D = Distance in Mpc, which would be recorded in the (r) entry.

z = galaxy's measured  red shift value using the hydrogen Lyman-alpha absorption line.
No other element may be used.

All galaxy distances must be evaluated for a possible update using this new equation.

With no Cepheid in a galaxy its entries for (p) and (q) are from someone's decision with undefined rules.


A quasar red shift can be saved for academic purposes.

The quasar red shift has two distinct z values:

1) from the Lyman-alpha emission line

2) from the metallic ion emission lines

The observed elements should be noted for academic purposes.

A quasar's  velocity and distance values are unknown.

A quasar dimming by distance calculation  is impossible because most are dimmed in optical by their gas clouds.
A dimming calculation of the full synchrotron radiation spectrum is impossible when there is no value from a verified benchmark.

If someone else does a data base design, an entry with an ambiguous value is not allowed.  Fields are defined to support the expected queries.

The above list does not include historical records. The supernova list will grow. Those events have their own separate archive.

This is a possible configuration. The users define the requirements.

Such a data base requires administrators but who can be assigned that role is quite uncertain to manage its worldwide market.

If a data base were developed for galaxies and quasars then a demand will arise for other celestial objects.

created - June 2020
last change - 6/28/2020