These 7 items or topics include the main problems in modern cosmology.
The 6th item is the author's book to address the most important topics in cosmology, with all in one book for reference.
This book was published on 06/22/2020, distributed by amazon.
The first topic or item (1) is the most important for cosmology in general.
There are actually 2 competing cosmologies:
1) the popular cosmology, or
2) the Electric Universe cosmology.
(1) is the popular cosmology (PC) used by the popular media which assumes it is the only cosmology, so everyone is at least somewhat aware of portions of it. Its big bang theory even had a comedy series with its name.
PC assumes Einstein's theory of relativity is the correct basis for cosmology beyond our Earth, or to the solar system, our Milky Way galaxy, and to the entire universe.
(2) is rarely if ever mentioned in the media.
Its basis is quite different.
Immanuel Velikovsky published the book Worlds in Collision in 1950.
Many scientists tried to suppress its publication just because it proposed a different recent history of our solar system than being taught.
The Thunderbolts Project (TBP) is the collection of scientists working on extending the concepts in cosmology which are better explained when gravity is not the dominant force. Electromagnetic forces are important in the universe (as Velikovsky had noted). This cosmology is called the Electric Universe.
The dogma of 1950 persists trying to keep this alternative cosmology unknown to most.
On this page, I will call the two cosmologies PC and EU (though EU has other acronyms).
There are several posts around the end of 2019 comparing the 2 cosmologies as well as introductory material for the electric universe cosmology. Several posts having "cosmology" in the title compare the 2 cosmologies
6 of these documents are written in the format (LAtex) of an academic paper as a pdf.
Each link 1 to 5 are pdf files). Each Internet browser handles a pdf file, but differently by the user's platform (including a smart phone).
1) link-pdf Clarifying Redshifts
(01/04/2020 - updated 05/27/2020)
2) link-pdf Verification of Dark Matter Finding
(01/02/2020 - updated 03/26/2020)
3) link-pdf Detecting a Gravitational Wave
(01/04/2020 - updated 04/03/2020)
4) link-pdf Space-time in Cosmology
5) link-pdf Quasar Hypothesis
6) link-html Observing Our Universe - a book by this author
7) link-html Updating Astronomical Data
Item (1) explains redshifts, when and why they are used wrong, and the correct rules for their use.
Item (1) is the most important suggestion here. Its basics are integrated into the book which is more thorough.
Many mistakes are based on this crucial mistake with redshifts.
All those galaxies and quasars which seem to be zooming away, some with redshifts indicating faster than light, are not really moving at the claimed velocities by this mistake.
Item (1) thoroughly explains the problem and its history, but it can be stated simply:
Galaxies have a red shifted hydrogen absorption line caused by the IGM. This was known in 1936, Quasars have a hydrogen emission line which reveals nothing about the quasar. Quasar red shifts have been measured at z > 7.
That simple mistake for galaxies and quasars put cosmology on the wrong track. It was never questioned even after dark energy arose as the excuse for unexplainable redshifts.
The big bang concept had some proponents in the 1920’s and this mistake with its widespread distribution of red shifts aided its acceptance..
There is no big bang with no universe expansion and so no dark energy to push it.
Item (1) applies to both cosmologies PC and EU because a spectrum analysis is a fundamental part of any cosmology.
Item (2) explains why the current search for undefined dark matter could result in a finding (given dark matter remains undefined) but any finding is impossible to verify.
There is no dark matter. Several studies (linked in the paper) have found dark matter is proposed wherever a magnetic field is ignored.
Dark matter arose from negligence and does not exist.
There is no dark matter but many are looking for it. Any finding cannot be verified, so its search should stop.
Item (2) applies to cosmology PC, but not EU which knows there is no dark matter.
The basics of Item (2) are integrated into the book.
Item (3) explains exactly what LIGO detects and it is not a gravitational wave.
The conclusion of item (3) nullifies the claimed mergers of black holes and neutron stars, because there are no gravitational waves being detected.
Black holes and neutron stars do not exist; both violate principles of physics.
LIGO did not confirm Einstein's prediction; Einstein was wrong about gravity having a velocity limit at c. Newton was right that gravity is immediate.
Item (3) applies to cosmology PC, but not EU which knows the PC claims are wrong.
Most of Item (3) is integrated into the book with a more thorough explanation.
Item (4) explains space-time (a 4-dimension coordinate system) and why it should not be used in cosmology. An observer's reference frame affected by gravity cannot be extended to the cosmological scale. There is no black hole, as others have noted for other reasons.
Space-time does not tell matter or light how to move.
Nonexistent black holes have persisted due to media stories, despite the lack of evidence.
Others have also described problems with relativity but I have my own list based on my personal experience with coordinate systems during my career.
(4) applies to cosmology PC, but not EU which knows relativity is wrong
Most of Item (4) is integrated into the book with a more thorough explanation.
Item (5) explains a quasar and its anomalous redshift.
EU also has a theory based on Halton Arp but mine is consistent with item (1) while EU’s quasar is not. There is a February, 2020 post about this quandary. A series of posts about Arp’s quasars followed in May.
Item (5) applies to cosmology PC and EU.
The basics of Item (5) are integrated into the book.
Items (6 and 7) explain the basic problems in cosmology and their solution.
Both items apply to both PC and EU.
Item (1) is supplemented by 2 research topics about the hydrogen and calcium atoms in the line of sight (perhaps in the IGM); the 2 topics are not critical to item (1) but provide extra details. To go to them from this page, click here-html
The calcium research topic includes a reference table with data from many galaxies, because M31 Andromeda galaxy has a blue shift from a calcium ion.
Items (1) to (7) recommend corrections to crucial assumptions in modern cosmology. They result in this basic conclusion for PC: there are none of big bang, black hole, dark matter, dark energy, expansion, neutron star, and space-time as others in EU community have also concluded for their own reasons.
If a pdf paper is updated, the current date of revision is on the cover page.
Above here are items about now.
Item (7) describes a necessary transition.
Below here is about the future of cosmology.
Next Step is a new cosmology
8) link-html New Cosmology
Item (8) draws attention to posts about certain topics, until they are integrated into one coherent narrative.
9) link-pdf Amending Kepler’s 3rd Law
(03/13/2020 - updated 03/23/2020)
Item (9) changes the description of Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion to include moons and exoplanets.
Item (9), as only a better explanation for a behavior, could seem trivial compared to the other items in this set of main items, but references to the behavior should be correct.
The document offers more than explaining that correction. It also links to: a) a table with the orbits of nearly all solar system objects (planets, moons, asteroids, and comets), and b) a table with the orbits of many exoplanet systems