Cosmology Views

# Deception in Graphics for Curvature

Graphical representations of space-time curvature are an intentional deception.

I hope using this unedited image from NASA will help explain this deception.

In relativity, when the observer is moving near an object with a gravitational field their 4-dimensional coordinate system will be curved so straight lines in Euclidean geometry are no longer straight. If the user defines their motion using coordinates in the distorted dimensions then their path will not be straight.

This curvature affects the moving observer's coordinate system but no one else is affected.

Einstein's first postulate is "The laws of physics take the same form in all inertial frames of reference."

The left column in the image illustrates how the observer's space-time is curved when the observer is passing by the Sun, a white dwarf, or a neutron star.

For all other observers the Sun, the white dwarf, or the neutron star will be observed using classical physics, such as electromagnetic radiation.

The image is deceptive because there is no distinction between the observer moving past these objects and all other observers.

One could present an edited image to represent the view for all other observers by simply removing those curved graphics for the observer's space-time. At the lower left is the legend "distorted space time" explicitly noting the specific context for this graphic. That edited image removes the deception by showing the real universe, which all observers can observe and measure, and which is not affected by one observer's motion past a particular body in physical space.

The right column in the image has the most blatant deception.

The single arrow pointing to "Singularity" is actually pointing to 2 entities.

1) the physical mass at that location in physical space,

This mass is not shown here though each mass was shown in the left column.

The image could be edited as suggested to remove the graphs from the respective columns; then the mass should be shown here, consistent with the others, to help fix the deception for all observers other than the one moving (i.,e., non-inertial).

2) a point in the observer's coordinate system.

The point is not in the image simply because a point has no size.

In basic geometry, the intersection of 2 lines is a point. The point is a specific coordinate in the coordinate system; a simple example of a point in 3-D is X1,Y2, Z3.

In the mathematical exercise of space-time curvature for an extreme mass all the lines of the respective dimensions cross at a point called the singularity.

This singularity is called a black hole though technically it is a black point. There is no hole in anything; it is just a point in a coordinate system.

The deceptive graphic hides this disaster  for physics with two simultaneous conflicting entities where one entity is a concept, just a point in a coordinate system, while the other is a physical mass.

For all other observers the mass is present and can be observed and measured and as a mass it is still subject to the force of gravity from other bodies.

Physicists chose to combine these two conflicting entities, resulting in something physically impossible.

The singularity is claimed to retain the mass and its gravitational field. However, this point has no size so the result is a gravitational field coming from a mass having infinite density.

There should be another arrow in the image next to that of Singularity and pointing to the same point but with the legend "Impossible"

There is no such thing as a black hole.

Unfortunately, black holes are crucial in cosmology because the universe has X-ray sources and cosmologists refuse to accept those are sources of synchrotron radiation in a universe driven by gravity.

Every medical facility with an X-ray machine has a synchrotron in it, where an electric current bending in a magnetic field emits X-rays.

Black holes are needed because cosmologists apparently never consider how X-ray machines work.
With that intentional ignorance, an accretion disk is proposed where this point source of gravity can have an impossible rotating disk of material heated only by friction to an impossible high temperature to get X-rays by thermal radiation.

The infamous image in radio frequency of the claimed black hole in M87 galaxy was the image of a plasmoid which has the shape of a torus where the electric current is bound by its magnetic field. The image of the plasmoid is identical in X-ray to radio because synchrotron radiation covers a broad spectrum from X-ray to radio. That image in radio was not  thermal radiation from an impossible accretion disk; the image was not a black hole.

Plasmoids in a lab can be observed to emits jets of plasma along its axis, just as observed with M87.

A 2008 study titled " BeppoSAX Observations of Synchrotron X-ray Emission from Radio Quasars"

concluded each AGN in radio quasars and BL Lac objects was a source of synchrotron radiation, not thermal radiation. None could justify an accretion disk or a black hole.

Some black holes are claimed to emits jets of material from its accretion disk but such a mechanism has never been demonstrated. The black hole is claimed to have such a strong force of gravity so nothing can escape but cosmologists propose the impossible opposite with these jets.

Probably, if graphical representations of space-time curvature were not deceptive then impossible entities like black holes would go away.

Also, the mistaken claim of remote gravitational lensing should also go away having no justification for a remote curvature..