EUT has had a number of recent comments about red shifts. Rather than replying to several comments, hopefully this post addresses the issue.
I had several recent posts about quasars. A quasar can have either of 2 red shift values. Arp's book seemed to take the lower value consistently.
I suspect his quasars were dim so the overall intensity of wavelengths was less than from brighter quasars.
The higher red shift value can be missed when it is near or beyond the high wavelength end of a graph, especially when the lower value dominates the spectrum in the graph.
A Caltech study of quasars discussed their typical quasar. Their analysis explained the various emission lines and calculated the obvious red shift which is the higher value (z = 1.34). Their typical quasar is z > 1. They calculated the other velocities in the spectrum but did not assign a z value to them. The quasars used in Arp's quantized red shift behavior were usually z < 1. I posted about his misleading sample.
One must be careful with Arp because Arp apparently did not realize how its red shift value is calculated. If he did, he never would have treated its red shift as a quasar velocity and come up with the false theory where a quasar red shift could be related to the age of the quasar.
I Thunderbolts Project apparently remains committed to Arp's wrong conclusions which is unfortunate.
Arp apparently did not know how a galaxy red shift is calculated either. He compared galaxy red shifts to quasar red shifts; they are different and unrelated mechanisms. That comparison and his conclusion they are wrong are his critical contribution to cosmology. He failed to explain WHY they are wrong. It seems nearly all astronomers are unaware of Hubble's conclusion in 1936, so all red shift velocities are a mistake and will continue to be wrong so the expansion and big bang mistakes continue as well.
Quasars can have very high red shifts by capturing very high velocity protons. Proton velocity can exceed c.
Above, galaxy red shifts were mentioned.
Galaxies beyond the Local Group are affected by hydrogen atoms in the Inter Galactic Medium. Edwin Hubble noticed this in 1936.
I tried to explain galaxy red shifts in this paper.
I am working on integrating a new section on blue shifts; that is another mistake leading to a wrong velocity, not affecting the red shifts and false expansion.
This section was added the next day.
Red shifts of quasars or galaxies should never be used as a velocity. That is the fundamental failure in cosmology.