Someone should tell the story of electrons and protons.
I have not found that story but the essentials are interesting so here is a short story.
This part of the story involves electrons and protons in matter, the stars, and the creation of matter. Some behaviors in galaxies are described when relevant to this narrow scope.
Everything in the universe is composed of Electrons and protons.
Their combinations when extremely packed form atoms. Some proton-electron pairs form what is called a neutron. This particle is not stable when outside a nucleus, where in several minutes the neutron will decay back to the original particle pair.
Combinations of neutrons and protons form another entity called a nuclet.
Combinations of nuclets with protons form the nucleus of an atom with some number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus.
When the number of electrons matches the number of protons the atom is considered neutral. When not matched it is called an ion. Its net charge depends on the relative numbers of the charged particles (+ or - ) in the atom.
This structure of an atom is thoroughly described by the Structured Atomic Model (its site is its name).
Atoms, protons and electrons are considered matter. All 3 have mass and can move so they can possess kinetic energy.
Thermodynamics describes various forms of energy and their transfers.
Energy is always conserved as it is transferred. Matter is also conserved. There is no observed process to create a proton or electron.
The exceptions to conservation are the processes of fission, fusion, transmutation, and radioactive decay, where values of total mass vary slightly from start to end. Those processes are not in the scope of this topic.
Gamma ray absorption for particle pair production is also out of scope.
Essentially electrons and protons make up everything we see, sometimes as atoms. the atoms are visible when in a form capable of either radiating or reflecting light. Stars are the main source of light on the cosmological scale.
A star begins with a compressed lattice of protons held together by shared electrons. This lattice is called metallic hydrogen. The configuration of the protons within the lattice changes at several distinct depths in a star. The lattice holds heat in the form of vibrations in the protons. By conduction that vibration passes through the lattice.
The core is a true solid with the tightest lattice called the body-centered cubic lattice.
Around the next layer's lattice is not as compressed so it becomes a liquid and is called liquid metallic hydrogen, or LMH. Its configuration is the hexagonal lattice of type 2 liquid metallic hydrogen. This liquid allows the heat from the core to be transferred to the photosphere by convection. This region is called the convective zone.
The core has a very slow rotation. This results in a stress between a rotating solid and the liquid around it. This transition is called the tachocline.
On top of the convective zone is the photosphere where the heat can be released as thermal radiation.
The photosphere has a different lattice than the layer below.
This photosphere layer is the hexagonal lattice of type 1 liquid metallic hydrogen.
This form of condensed matter is less compressed and emits thermal radiation as light.
Its lattice explains observations like limb darkening.
From the core up to the photosphere all is just protons and electrons.
Above the photosphere is the chromosphere.
According to Wikipedia it is 2000 km deep
Dr. Robitaille describes it has having a hexagonal lattice similar to the convective zone below it.
The chromosphere is where the results of element transmutation are observed with the presence of atoms and molecules.
There are emission lines where atomic nuclei or ions are capturing electrons so the state change results in an emission of energy.
The photosphere, below the chromosphere, has intercolate regions which are layers of non-hydrogen atoms between the LMH lattice layers.
The observation implies heavier ions move down by the force of gravity from above where they are being formed.
The photosphere has intercolate regions which are non-hydrogen atoms between the LMH lattices.
The chromosphere is a source of emission lines and has chemical reactions which Robitaille describes as hydrogen condensation which must be protons moving among various ions.
The chromosphere is where atomic matter is created, a process of building the nuclei through transmutation with protons, neutrons, electrons, and providing them with some electrons forming ions.
The solar model defined by Donald Scott proposes electric currents in loops within the convective zone affect the behaviors of sun spots which occur in the chromosphere or above the photosphere.
The layers and behaviors above the photosphere involve many details, beyond the scope and intent of this topic.
Possible conclusions from the above:
1) A catastrophic event which ejects the entire photosphere is a possible explanation of a spherical plasma planetary nebula which is observed around a dim star.
This scenario was suggested in the January 23, 2020 post titled: Plasma Planetary Nebula.
2) A star by itself cannot create a spherical planet though they are often associated.
Metallic ions are in the intercalate regions within the photosphere and are also in the chromosphere. There is no internal mechanism available to create a body of any size by compressing the dispersed ions.
The average Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is 10^12 kg while planet Mercury is 3x10^23 kg. The CME must be ejecting mass from the intercalate region. There is no description of the elements in a CME.
“ The red-glowing looped material [in a prominence] is plasma, a hot gas composed of electrically charged hydrogen and helium. ”
The creation of planets and their moons require a mechanism not defined here.
An eruption as suggested by (1) is not likely to provide a mechanism for (2).
Planet formation is out of scope for this topic.
This story will continue with the creation of a star.
Dr. Robitaille describes the star requiring simple building blocks of the metallic hydrogen lattice.
Star forming regions in galaxies are called H II regions. This was described in my May 24, 2020 post titled: Renaming the H II Regions. Astronomers can identify regions of free protons in both galaxies and nebulae and consider them star formation regions. The H II regions are relevant to this LMH model.
When these loose protons condense together to form the metallic hydrogen lattice, they are the star's building blocks.
Some mechanisms in a galaxy can be summarized below. More detail is out of scope.
A galaxy is connected to its cluster by birkelund current pairs.
excerpt from the TBP EU Essential Guide Chapter 7:
[Birkelund currents are] another cause of filamentation of currents in plasma. This is due to the fact that there is a force of attraction between any two parallel currents. By “parallel currents” we mean that the direction of flow or motion of like charges (say, the electrons, or the protons or ions) in one filament of matter in space is in the same or nearly the same direction in both of the two (or more, in some cases) filaments of current.
In the Alfven galactic circuit model, the Birkelund current pair connects to a spiral galaxy core where it splits into individual filaments out each arm.
The behaviors in the core and arms are not clear as described in April 7, 2020 post titled Spiral Galaxy Magnetic Field.
H II regions are observed in the spiral arms. The Birkelund currents from the galactic core are apparently delivering many protons who can loosely form the H II regions enabling star formation.
The bulge of a spiral galaxy is not thoroughly understood but posts on May 18 and 19, 2020 described the galactic corona.
This corona is a source of synchrotron radiation so there are charged particles whose motion is bent by a magnetic field.
Absorption lines of metallic ions like calcium are observed in the spectrum of the M31 galactic corona. The galactic corona must have an underlying surface of LMH which affects the electrons in this electrical discharge being observed here by its radiation.
The motion of the electrons is diverted by a magnetic field to generate radiation. An electric current through the corona LMH surface could generate a magnetic field but the source driving that current is undefined.
The galactic halo is observed to extend far beyond the galactic corona. These observations of a galaxy can be compared to a star, except the galactic corona is similar to a solar photosphere while the galactic halo is similar to a solar corona.
HST tried to measure stars near the galaxy's corona or possibly in the halo but found no sideways motion so whether they were either: a) stationary within in the halo which has no transverse motion, or b) truly background stars is unknown. Globular clusters are certainly separate from a galaxy but there is no public reference describing individual stars observed beyond the galactic corona or halo.
Whether a star can be ejected from a galaxy and remain luminous seems unlikely.
This story is definitely an incomplete puzzle but individual pieces are being identified to eventually describe a complete story.
Finding those pieces is an interesting challenge. I have not found a TBP story with all the details.
Perhaps others will be interested in this short story of electrons and protons.