Cosmology Views

Fixing Cosmology Trilogy

I self-published three books to describe a path for fixing popular cosmology.

I am not giving this path a name. Other cosmologies have names.
Someone hosting a conference assigns a name.

I am describing only a future path based on the current state of the science. The future steps are determined by astronomers and cosmologists, when acting on the conclusions in the 3 books.

Many astronomical data must be fixed. New observations must have assumptions fixed before conclusions are drawn.

When the entire foundation must change, there are some new paths which can be described but others will arise from the ashes during a new construction.

This "new" cosmology is mostly based on the "electric universe cosmology" but I feel that one is not correct in all theories. As a result, the books describe a path objectively. I have no vested interest in any particular theory having a broad scope for cosmology. I just have a personal curiosity whether anyone involved in this cosmological dogma can be persuaded to reconsider the many wrong assumptions at the foundation of modern cosmology.

I had 3 simple goals in April 2020 when I created a web site "cosmologyview":

1) identify everything clearly wrong in the "popular" big bang cosmology,

2) identify ways to overcome all those mistakes.
3) identify the likely "better" theories for a "new" cosmology.

The first goal was achieved with the first book, Observing Our Universe (OOU).

The second goal was achieved with the second book: Cosmology Transition (CT).

The third goal was achieved with CT in conjunction with the third book, Cosmology Connections (CC). The scope for (3) was too big for one paperback.

The books tell a story in 3 parts like this.

OOU reveals big problems occur when astronomers ignore the observer's context.

1) Galaxy red shifts are not a velocity, because it comes from the inter-galactic medium.

Cosmology currently assumes there is only one red shift mechanism by Doppler effect in the observer's line of sight. Edwin Hubble realized this IGM behavior for galaxies was not Doppler in 1936, but it did not get realized by most others. 
There are actually 4 distinct red shift mechanisms for galaxies and quasars (2 for each) and none indicate the object's velocity. This mistake with a false velocity causes many others including the false expansion, the impossible dark energy, and cosmology's science fiction magnum opus called the big bang theory (not the comedy of that name).

2) Gravitational waves don't exist but LIGO ignored their instruments were on the Earth's surface and were detecting the tidal effect of the Moon and Sun. LIGO made claims with no evidence.

3) Relativity is based on a moving observer. The Einstein theory proposed their reference frame, called space-time, could be curved by a gravitational field. An observer here on Earth or in nearby probes is never that special observer. There was never a case when space-time explained an instance of gravity better than Newton's force. Relativity proposed a black hole which is something Newton could not explain, because it is an impossible entity.

Relativity, having its context limited to a moving observer's 4-dimensional reference frame, is not applicable to cosmology. It is just the basis for more science fiction like worm holes.

CT provides several recommendations for cosmology's transition from the mistakes identified in OOU, with 2 general topics:

1) Updating the astronomical data for galaxies and quasars including a better galaxy distance calculation.

2) Recommending those electric cosmology theories which match observations:

a) Robitaille's liquid metallic hydrogen solar model. He has presented this model in several venues: EU, Suspicious Observers, and APS. This is a big change for astrophysics.

b) Don Scott's Birkelund current model for a spiral galaxy. This explains its rotation with no dark matter.

c) my quasar model which explains the quasar's two red shifts. Halton Arp had used only the lower of the two, resulting in several wrong conclusions.

d) SAFIRE  explained the transmutation of elements on the Sun's surface, in the chromosphere.

There is no process of sustained fusion in the solid core of the Sun. Alfven proposed the axial current from the galaxy to the solar core. Robitaille described how that energy is moved from the core through the convective zone and then radiated from the photosphere.

CC details observation of electrical connections in the cosmos.

1) every magnetic field requires an electric current. That requirement is often ignored in popular cosmology.

2) synchrotron radiation is the result of a magnetic field affecting an electric current.

Therefore every instance of synchrotron radiation must have that pair for its emission.

CC describes many observations of synchrotron radiation in the universe.

Thermal radiation, or heat, spans the frequencies from only ultraviolet to infrared.

Any frequencies outside that range for thermal must be synchrotron radiation.

Those include radio at the low end and X-ray or gamma ray at the high end.

Radio emissions are known from the gas giants so they have the synchrotron radiation mechanism.

X-ray emissions are known from the core of nearly every galaxy so they have the synchrotron radiation mechanism.
X-ray emissions are known from the intracluster medium in many galaxy clusters so they have the synchrotron radiation mechanism.

When loose ions or protons capture loose electrons the result is ultraviolet emissions.  Only a small number emit in the optical or visible range.

Only stars emit thermal radiation. All other radiated energy, except those atomic emission lines,  has a non-thermal or electrical source.

Stars have an electrical current resulting in its heat, so nearly all radiation in the universe is driven by plasma or electromagnetic connections.

A new cosmology must begin with that observation.

Cosmology Connections offers electrical observations with explanations.

Many images are referenced in the text. Online images of nebulae and galaxy clusters can use false colors. The selected colors reveal electrical and plasma activity. Radio, infrared, ultraviolet and X-ray frequencies are not visible. Radio is at the low end of synchrotron radiation, while X-ray is near the high end.
Ultraviolet reveals ions capturing electrons. Wonderful images are created by assigning colors to their known invisible frequencies, For examples, blue is usually X-ray, red is either infrared or radio, or sometimes the iron emission line. Other elements like oxygen get their own color.

The images reveal plasma and electrical connections because ions are plasma and synchrotron radiation is plasma in motion being affected by a magnetic field.

The last page of all 3 books identifies a web page for the book's edition.

This web page enables the reader to:

a) browse the web page having links to all the references in the book.

b) check whether their book edition has errata.

My typing cannot be perfect so if I find mistakes, the corrections are available for a reader of any edition.

Content is not added by errata. Each book is done. I will continue posting about cosmology. and adding those to my site's archive.

The 3 books cover the scope of basic cosmology. This set of paperbacks is not a formal textbook for cosmology with all the intricate details.

The current scope for cosmology began in 1922 when Hubble had evidence M31 was far beyond our Milky Way.

After only 100 years,  there remains much to learn about the cosmos. Having a better context for observations results in better conclusions.

As a retired electrical engineer, not a cosmologist, I cannot promise "certainty" but I can offer "better" than the present science.

In November 2019, I predicted multiple LIGO detections which were confirmed. NSF was notified of the basic LIGO mistake. NSF acknowledged my data but no change resulted.

Changing the course of modern cosmology from the outside is not possible. Those on the inside must recognize their mistakes for change to occur.

In any social group, including one defining a science, a huge change must begin from the inside and then progress outward, as others grasp the consequences and accept a change.

A group's leaders can choose its direction. The group decides whether to follow. Only much dissension can get the path reconsidered.

I am definitely on the outside.

To overcome dogma in any science, overwhelming evidence is required.

Cosmology is often driven by dogma and that critical evidence continues to accumulate.

Because I used Kindle Book Publishing, only Amazon has distribution rights for the books, so a Kindle version is also available.