The few fundamental subatomic particles have a simple definition: mass and charge.
This topic is based on the Structured Atomic Model (SAM) having only electrons and protons, not on the Standard Model having its zoo of quarks and quasi-particles.
Some definitions from Wikipedia:
The dalton or unified atomic mass unit (symbols: Da or u) is a unit of mass widely used in physics and chemistry. It is defined as 1/12 of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state and at rest. The atomic mass constant, denoted mu, is defined identically, giving mu = m(12C)/12 = 1 Da.
1 u or 1 Da = 1.66053906660 ×10^−27 kg
1 1 u = 1822.888486209 me
mass proton = 1.007276466621 u
e = electric charge = 1.602176634 ×10^−19 C
proton charge = +1e
me = mass electron = 5.48579909070 ×10^−4 u
electron charge = -1e
neutrino mass = < 2.14 × 10^−37 kg, 95% confidence level, sum of 3 flavors
neutrino charge = 0e
neutrino mass = < 3.53 × 10^−10 u
When ignoring the Standard Model:
There are only 6 fundamental subatomic particles, but from only 3 pairs when including rare anti-particles.
mass = me, charge = -1e
2) anti-electron or positron
mass = me, charge = +1e
mass = mass proton, charge = +1e
mass = mass proton, charge = -1e
mass = mass neutrino, charge = 0e
mass = mass neutrino, charge = 0e
The difference between neutrino and anti-neutrino is described by an attribute called chirality.
Chirality is not relevant to this topic. The anti-neutrino is in the list only because it is part of standard radioactive decay descriptions (below).
In this list, every particle has mass. Of the 3 pairs, there is one particle pair, a neutrino, having no charge.
On September 11, I posted "The Force of Gravity" proposing the force of gravity is distinct from an electric force.
A neutrino exhibits a "mass" behavior but no "charge" behavior. This particle confirms the assumption in that post.
An anti-proton is never found in the universe. One can be created only in a particle accelerator.
"The antiproton was first experimentally confirmed in 1955 at the Bevatron particle accelerator by University of California."
The anti-proton can be ignored in this post.
A positron can be found after 2 transient events.
1) positron emission,
2) particle pair production.
Excerpt from Wikipedia for (1):
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe). Positron emission is mediated by the weak force. The positron is a type of beta particle (β+), the other beta particle being the electron (β−) emitted from the β− decay of a nucleus.
Excerpt for (2):
Pair production often refers specifically to a photon creating an electron–positron pair near a nucleus. For pair production to occur, the incoming energy of the photon must be above a threshold of at least the total rest mass energy of the two particles, and the situation must conserve both energy and momentum. However, all other conserved quantum numbers (angular momentum, electric charge, lepton number) of the produced particles must sum to zero – thus the created particles shall have opposite values of each other. For instance, if one particle has electric charge of +1 the other must have electric charge of −1, or if one particle has strangeness of +1 then another one must have strangeness of −1.
The probability of pair production in photon–matter interactions increases with photon energy and also increases approximately as the square of atomic number of the nearby atom.
SAM describes a neutron as the triple combination of a proton, electron. and an electron anti-neutrino, where a neutrino is called the "activation energy."
(2) is more important here.
Particle pair production probability increases with more electrons.
Every atom has a specific configuration of its electron orbitals.
An atom will absorb a specific wavelength when it can change the electrons to a new energy state by that amount. This is a quantized behavior of an atom, where a longer wavelength than required will not be absorbed by the atom.
Similarly, when an electron moves to a lower orbital, or to a lower energy state, an emission line of a particular wave length is emitted. This wave length is sometimes related to the distance between orbitals and it contains the energy being released from the electron's change.
The photoelectric effect has an extra result with the absorption line.
When the atom absorbs enough energy for an electron to leave the atom rather than just changing orbitals, then the electron leaves having the kinetic energy in excess of the minimum required to leave.
The pair production event description is awkward, with "[creating a] pair near a nucleus" when the event is actually changing an electron pair in orbit around the nucleus. Of course, that is "near."
A YouTube video by Lori Gardi is attached for 3 reasons:
1) The well accepted Planck equation has a bug. She has a thorough explanation which is worthwhile to hear.
2) The energy in light is in the intensity of a particular wave length, not in the frequency.
3) This is another useful explanation of why there is no photon.
The conclusion that a wave length intensity carries the energy is relevant to some positron events.
Particle pair production event requires an atom having multiple electrons absorbing the energy in a very short wavelength, or in the gamma ray range.
The energy for the photoelectric effect results in an electron emission. Each atom has a minimum wave length defining the energy required for this effect. The wave length affects this ejection, not just intensity. These events are usually in the ultraviolet range.
The higher energy required for the pair production results in the emission of both an electron and a positron. This suggests the atom is losing 2 electrons but one flipped its charge polarity during its ejection.
The description mentions the energy matching the sum of the pair of particle masses, as if both were created just from energy.
A simpler, alternative explanation is the extra energy absorbed in this event is applied to flipping the charge polarity in one electron. Then there is no creation of mass in a new particle.
The photoelectric effect ejects one particle while pair production ejects two. Neither event actually creates matter.
This alternate, simple explanation of pair production is different than offered during a 2018 presentation about future science in our Electric Universe, where the pair is created.
Perhaps I have over-simplified the pair event, but it was worthwhile to consider, for me and maybe for others.
A muon subatomic particle is observed with some particle accelerator experiments. Its mass is about 207 times that of an electron and also has a charge of -1e.
Results of particle accelerators are not the topic of this post. The unidentified atomic participants in the collisions are crucial to explaining their results.
An observation on antimatter annihilation is possible.
The collision of a particle with its anti-particle, like electron with positron, is described as a release of much energy but with little definition.
At that moment of merging, there are 2 charged particles in motion for a brief moment over a very short distance during a mutual annihilation. Charges in motion can result in radiation like with emission lines.
When the distance is smaller than an electron and it defines the wave length emitted from this event, then the energy being released is carried in a tiny wave length or in gamma rays.
I have wondered how to explain the gamma ray wave length from extreme events, like annihilation. Perhaps, that is one. Sometimes during the radioactive decay of a complex nucleus, a gamma ray emission occurs. The distance during each event is tiny.
Mass and charge are separate attributes of matter, down to the 6 fundamental subatomic particles.