My views on Cosmology and Physics
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Fixing the Crisis in Cosmology
There is a solution to the unresolved Crisis in Cosmology.
Excerpt from a 2021 news story at space.com:
Since 2014, there have been over 300 proposals for solutions to this "crisis in cosmology." None of these proposals is universally agreed upon by cosmologists, and as measurements continue, the crisis just keeps getting worse.
The attachment explains those incorrect measurements and the consequences.
Since 1912, galaxy redshifts have been measured by the same method as stars. This is a mistake but continues. The consequences include the crisis in cosmology.
Absorption and emission lines in a stellar spectrum come from atoms on the photosphere surface so the atoms move with the star. A galaxy has millions of stars and a galaxy has no photosphere for possible attached atoms. A galaxy has many stars moving independently though in visible patterns, like in spiral arms.
All absorption and emission lines in a galaxy spectrum are from atoms in the line of sight. They indicate nothing about a galaxy.
In 1914, Vesto Slipher measured absorption lines from calcium ions in the M31 spectrum and assigned their voelocity of -300 km/s to M31. This rate is the same velocity as calcium ions in the slow solar wiond. Since 1914, astronomers assert the M31 galaxy having a trillion stars is moving at the same velocity as ions in the solar wind. No one believes our Sun is moving at the same velocity as particles in its solar wind.
With this mistake, some predict M31 will collide with our Milky Way. The nonsense is justified by an obvious mistake in published values.
All galaxies and quasars having a high redshift of z > 1 share the same mechanism being measured, the redshift of a Lyman-alpha emission line.
This line occurs when a proton captures an electron, becoming a hydrogen atom. The velocity of the proton at that instant causes the line to shift by the proton's velocity and direction.
Quasars with a z > 8, and galaxies with z > 11 have been measured. The tiny mass proton can move faster than the velocity of light. This can be accomplished easily when a positive proton moves through and is accelerated by a sustained magnetic field.
The velocity of the fast proton has nothing to do with the velocity of a quasar, or of a galaxy having millions of stars.
The velocity of the proton and its redshift have nothing to do with the distance to the galaxy or quasar. Currently, they are assigned an incredible co-moving distance by Hubble's Law and where the fabric of space is stretching faster than the speed of light causing an illusion of an object moving faster than light because its the light is claimed to stretch with the fabric . The confusion with high redshifts directly affects the mistakes of universe expansion and an expanding fabric of space after a big bang. This proposed a stretching fabric would stretch the light propagating on it but light cannot behave like this. This invible stretchable fabric is utter nonsense as an explanation for many reasons, and one is only the Lyman-alpha line is redshifted, not the entire spectrum.
Hubble's Law arose from only a few galaxies measured before 1926. It should have been ignored a long time ago, because it results in an Earth centered universe. The law indicates the linear velocity in the line of sight to Earth is related to its linear distance from Earth by a ratio called Hubble's constant..
Astronomers have never measured distant galaxies for a sideways motion. If they do not move only in the line of sight, no one has taken the time to check. It took time to measure the motions of Mars and Venus to calculate their orbits.
Astronomers have no data on the true motion on any galaxies. The universe expansion assume motions from redshifts are restricted to the line of sight. Therefore, all motion fom the big bang originated from Earth. No cosmologists e say what their bad data reveal: the bg bang explosion originated here on Earth.
Unfortunately, cosmology does not self-correct so the confusion between redshift velocity and distance remains a century later.
I created a document having a chronology of events in cosmology since 1905 to describe the multiple events and evolution of the continuing crisis in cosmology, and to suggest fixes for some mistakes. I offer an alert to some readers. There are many excerpts from Wikipedia to explain many uncommon terms. Hopefully, no one is offended by my using Wikipedia for background material. I am aware of some who take such offense.
Its title is Century of Confusion for Cosmology After Redshift Mistake.
It contains several charts and screen captures in its 276 pages, so the file is large at 4.2 MB and can be freely disributed.
date posted 11/09/2021