Cosmology View

My views on Cosmology and Physics

site navigation menu


Arp in the Redshift Quagmire

Since the first redshift measurement in 1912, and the first blueshift measurement in 1914, every galaxy and quasar has had its redshift velocity measured wrong, for 2 reasons. 1) Doppler is only a change in the line of sight, not 3-D,

2) Absorption and emission lines cannot occur at the light source, when a galaxy or quasar.

Unfortunately, measuring motion in 3-dimensions requires many observations over a long time.

Since this mistake remains unrecognized after so long, many mistakes resulted when using wrong data. Cosmology is broken at ithe level of its fundamental data.

This mistake in the method was explained in my free web-book

Distant Spectral Shifts

I believe quagmire accurately describes this state of electric universe cosmology.

The redshift measurement seeks the velocity of an object. Physics is the science of understanding motion.

Halton Arp was a renowned astronomer. His compilation of observations, in the  Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, should be interesting to every astronomer, regardless of their level of experience.

He observed high redshift objects which were either adjacent to, or in front of, low redshift objects.

He correctly concluded the ratio of redshift to distance, as defined by Hubble's Law, is wrong.

Light and the Doppler effect are in the domain of physics.

Hubble's Law and the interpretation of the spectra of galaxies and quasars are in the domain of astrophysics.

Despite his possible inexperience in astrohysics, he chose to define 3 new behaviors in astrophysics for the redshifts and blueshifts.

1) He proposed these values were related to the age of the matter in the distant lighht source, so blue meant young and red old.

M31 galaxy is known for its blue shift.

NASA has a web page for educators explaining the M31 blue shift comes from absorption lines of calcium ions.

Their velocity is the same as ions in the slow solar wind.

Claiming both the direction and velocity of these tiny ions is defined by the age of M31 (which has 1 trillion stars) cannot be justified, and is a mistake.

2) He proposed that a redshift value is quantized, or it changes only in discrete increments.

3) He proposed that an object could have an intrinsic redshift, like an initial value.

All 3 are impossible.

Before proceeding, the fact that Arp used a limited data set should be acknowledged. All galaxies and quasars in Seeing Red had a z value less than 1. Now, there are many galaxies and quasars with z greater than 1.

I strongly believe that, just like many of his colleagues, Atp did not understand a redshift measurement.

It is my observation (despite my efforts)  that most believe a redshift measurement is done using a verified method, so the value has no interpretation, to introduce a mistake.
For example, there is no reason to doubt something simple, like measuring the magnitude of a light source.
There is often an instrument designed for a specific function, so its results can be accepted without doubt.

Unfortunately, the method for redshifts has been wrong for over 100 years.

As I described in Distant Spectral Shifts, it is impossible to make a brief measurement of the light  (magnitude or spectrum) from a galaxy or quasar, and extract its 3-dimensional velocity from that data.

Now, there are specific instruments designed for specific wavelengths in the radio frequency range, which plot only a graph of velocities. The instrument hides the mistake within its design.

Big bang cosmology has conceded that it remains in a crisis, until a new value for Hubble's constant is agreed upon, during meetings of cosmologists who present their findings.

That crisis cannot be resolved until the redshift method is fixed, because that mistake is at the root of the crisis.

Thunderbolts Project (TBP) and its Electric Universe cosmology have their own crisis when dealing with Arp's wrong conclusions.

Since Arp's mistakes are accepted without question, they will not be addressed.

I call this crisis for EU a quagmire, because TBP fails to recognize there are multiple levels of mistakes, when trying to apply Arp's mistakes on a larger scale.

Apparently, TBP supports certain individuals basing their efforts on Arp's mistakes.

I won't identify specific TBP sponsored podcasts or articles.

I will not fault those being given wrong directions.

Electri universe cosmology must reject Arp's mistakes.

date posted  04/24/2022