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My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Mass and Gravity

Mass and Gravity answers 2 questions which linger in physics

What is mass? in the sciences using that word, including physics and  chemistry.

What is the mechanism driving the force of gravity?

Isaac Newton defined the force but not its mechanism.

Newton's equation for the force has been reliable. It was used to find the planet Neptune. NASA uses it to launch space probes to reach very distant targets

However, its mechanism remains unknown.

Mass and Gravity is a book presented as a series of web pages, so I call it a web-book.

Anyone having Internet access and a browser can read this web-book, by starting with its link..

In this format, the reader's platform and browser enable changes to a presentation. That flexibility is impossible in atypical book.

The  main advantages of a web-book are:

your platform and browser can change the presentation as you like,
such as easy changes in zoom,

 integrated links to on-line references, and

 it's free.

The Table of Contents enables navigating among the sections.  Click on the link to view that section.

Each section ends with a link to this TOC.

Table of Contents

Introduction (below)

1 Matter and Mass

2 Newton's Force Between Masses

3 Coulomb's Force Between Charges

4 Electric Field Demo by Lori Gardi

5 My Changes to an Atomic Model

6 My Field Mechanism for the Force of Gravity

7 Comparing Fields

8 Possible Changes in Gravity Long Ago

9 Light  and Gravity

10 My Relevant Publications

11 Final Conclusion


The top of this first page already provided an overview of this web-book.

Mass snd Gravity describes describes both the concept of mass and a mechanism for Newton's force of gravity between 2 masses.

This theory  is based on the similarity between
a) mass in Newton's force of gravity, and
b) charge in  the electric force defined by Coulomb's Law, and
c) an electric field around a charge, as defined by James Clerk Maxwell.

Isaac Newton defined the force of gravity between 2 masses, but not its mechanism.

Isaac Newton defined the force of gravity many years before James Clerk Maxwell and others defined  the electric and magnetic forces.

At his time, Newton had no available mechanism for his instantaneous force of gravity between 2 masses.

Wikipedia has a topic for Electric Field.

This topic has a section titled Parallels between electrostatic and gravitational fields.

This topic reveals that in our time, physicists have agreed that Newton's force of gravity and Coulomb's electric force are very similar in several important ways.

The topic identifies several items.
I see these items  from my comparison:

1) Both forces act instantaneously.

2) Their force equations have a very similar format.

a) the numerator is the data of one multiplied by the other.

For the force of gravity, this is its mass.
For the electric force, this is its charge.

b) Both equations have the denominator as the square of their mutual distance, because this force acts on both objects in the same instant.

c) There is no variable for time in their force equations, because the forces are instantaneous.

d) Both equations have their unique constant which is needed to get the correct units of force, and to account for the effect of the medium on this force.

Both forces act instantaneously, but diminish by the inverse-square of the distance between the 2 objects.

The electric force has these properties because it is based on an electric field around a charge. This field is always present.

By noting these similarities, gravity must have a similar mechanism to  the electric force.

This is a summary of the respective sections:

1) basics of matter and mass; mass is involved in the force of gravity (and more),

2) description of Newton's force of gravity,

3) description of Coulomb's force,

4) description of a demonstration by Lori Gardi of an electric field (helps with proposed gravity field),

5) my changes to an atomic model,

6) describes my field mechanism using my proposed gravity field which is just like an electric field,

7) comparing the behaviors of an electric field to the proposed gravity field,

8) proposes a solution to the apparent problem of dinosaurs too massive for Earth's current gravity,

9) addresses whether gravity can affect light,

10) my publications relevant to mass and gravity are described,

11) Conclusions from the above topics.

Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.

last change 03/21/2022